PART OF SPEECH / WORD CLASS

PART OF SPEECH / WORD CLASS

  • NOUN
  • PRONOUN
  • VERB
  • ADVERB
  • ADJECTIVE
  • ARTICLE
  • PREPOSITION
  • CONJUNCTION
  • INTERJECTION

SUBJECT OBJECT ADJECTIVE POSS PRONOUN POSS
I Me My Mine
You You Your Yours
They Them Their Theirs
We Us Our Ours
He Him His His
She Her Her Hers
It It Its Its

Examples :

  1. John and (I) are the same age.
  2. John and I are the same age
  • (We) teacher praised (I) and (she)
  • Our teacher praised me and her
  1. The letter was addressed to (you)
  2. The letter was addressed to you
  • (He) wanted only (we)
  • He wanted only us

We are pleased to inform–.— that the missing order has been found.
(A) you (B) your (C) yours (D) yourself

Noun
I . KINDS OF NOUNS :

  • Common nouns : table, dog, man
  • Proper Nouns : France, The Himalayas
  • Abstract Nouns : Charity, Beauty, fear, bravery
  • Collective nouns : team, family, group, etc.

II. FUNCTIONS:

  • SUBJECT : The man climbed the electric pole
  • COMPLEMENT (after be, become): Tom cruise is an actor
  • OBJECT OF A VERB: I saw a girl in the river
  • OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION : She is looking at the dog hysterically
  • IN POSSESSIVE OF OTHER NOUNS: He holds the girl’s hand tightly to show his love

NOUN DERIVATION
Adjective :

  • happy ===>>> happiness
  • brave ===>>> bravery
  • popular ==>>> popularity
  • long ====>>> length
  • different =>>> difference

Verb :

  • Produce ===>>> product, production, producer
  • Act ======>>> actor, actress, action, acting

EXERCISE

Extreme ——- should be used when the forklift truck is being operated.
(A) caution (B) cautioned
(C) cautiously (D) cautious

ADVERBS

  • Adverbs of Manner: carefully, slowly, fast, hard, etc.
  • Adverbs of place: somewhere, here, there, and places after prep.
  • Adverbs of time: now, soon, today, eventually, afterwards, lately, recently, now, soon, tomorrow, immediately, still, etc.
  • Adverbs of frequency: always, usually, sometimes, often, seldom, never, twice a day, periodically, etc.
  • Adverbs of certainty: certainly, definitely, apparently, evidently, obviously, presumably, undoubtedly
  • Adverbs of degree (modify adjective or other adverbs, some also verb): very, fairly, rather, quite, too, almost, nearly, quite, extremely, absolutely, really, so, only, completely, etc.
  • Interrogative Adverbs
  • Relative Adverbs

THE FORMATION OF ADVERBS

  • Most adverbs of manner & some adverbs of degree: adjective + ly : Slow + ly = slowly
  • Notes:
  • Final “y”, changes into “i” then plus “ly” : gay – gaily
  • Final “e” stays then plus “ly” : extremely
  • Exceptions: true-truly, due-duly, whole-wholly
  • Final “able/ible” drops then plus “y” : sensible-sensibly, probable-probably, capable-capably
  • Final “l’ stays then plus “ly”: careful-carefully, final-finally

EXCEPTION

  • Good – well
  • Adjective ended with “ly”: friendly, likely, lonely, lovely, lowly have no adverb
  • High, low, deep, near, far, fast, hard, early, late, much, little, direct (non time), straight, pretty, wrong, kindly, enough both function as adjective and adverb
  • A high mountain——The bird flew high on the sky
  • A fast car —— she ran fast
  • A hard job —– she works very hard
  • A pretty girl —– Indonesia is pretty big
  • A straight line —- He went straight home
  • A direct route —- she goes direct from Kalisat to Jelbug
  • Enough time —– he did not run fast enough

POSITION
=> After the verbs
– She cried loudly
=>After the object
– He finished his assignment reluctantly
=> Verb + O (for other adverbs mainly precede the verbs, but for adverb of manner precede the verbs only when the object is long)
– He carefully pick up all the broken glass which were shattered on his floor after the tornado.
=> Verb + prep. + O (can precede the prep. or after the object, but when the object is long it is always placed before the prep.)
– He looked at me suspiciously
– He looked suspiciously at me
– He looked suspiciously at everyone who had long beard

EXERCISE
The report indicates that the Tilbrook Fund is acting properly by delivering policy advice ——- rather than announcing it to the public.
(A) privacy (B) privately (C) private (D) privatize

ADJECTIVE
KINDS:
1. ONE OR TWO SYLLABLE/S
Ex : fast, happy, slow
2. More than two syllables:
Ex : beautiful, expensive, productive

Positions :

  1. Before noun : beautiful girl
  2. After to be : She is beautiful
  3. Sometimes after object : He always makes me sad

AJECTIVE DERIVATION
1. Noun:

  • beauty ===>>beautiful
  • health ====>> healthy
  • danger ===>> dangerous
  • history ===>> historical
  • reason ===>> reasonable

2. Verb :
agree ===>>>>agreeable
hear ===>>>> audible
read ===>>>> legible
eat ====>>>> edible
see ====>>>> visible

By : Asep Samsudin, S.Pd

~ oleh bangzabar pada Agustus 4, 2009.

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